|Omission||Red text with strikethrough||1 error|
|Substitution||Red text with strikethrough and red text above||1 error|
|Insertion||Red text above with caret||No error*|
|Repetition||Red text above with caret||No error*|
|Self-correction||Red text above with /SC||No error|
Contractions: If a student makes a miscue related to a contraction, the number of errors made relates to how many words were missed on the running record. See examples below:
|Substitution||Red text with strikethrough and red text above||2 errors|
Inversions: If a student inverts the order of two words, one of the words will be marked as an omission and an insertion. See example below:
|Omission and Insertion||Red text with strikethrough and red text above with caret||
*Why does Literably not count insertions or repetitions as errors?
Literably is similar to some other reading assessment programs (e.g., DIBELS, FastBridge, etc.) in that insertions are not counted as errors. Below are some reasons for this:
- Literably is assessing whether the student can read the words on the page. If students aren’t able to read a word on the page, then we count that as an error.
- Students often make ambiguous utterances that are in addition to attempts to read a text -- for example, "um," "I don't know this one," etc. Counting insertions as errors may lead to these types of utterances being counted against students in the accuracy score.
As an illustration of this, below (and also here) is an example of a graded assessment. Because Literably's graders are trained to capture an exact transcript of the student's reading, all of the insertions made by the student are included in the running record.
Based on how Literably currently calculates a student's accuracy score, the student made 3 miscues that are counted as errors (i.e., omissions and substitutions): "I am" and "very." Literably thus calculated the student's accuracy score as 96/99 = 97%.
If, however, all of the insertions and repetitions (e.g., "a," "kn cannot a," etc.) in the running record had been counted as errors, the student's accuracy score would instead be 80/99 = 80.8%, resulting in the student being leveled down 2 or more levels.