In the Rate column, what do the different colors (red, yellow, green) mean?

The colors indicate whether the student is meeting expectations for words correct per minute (as defined by the Hasbrouck & Tindal oral reading fluency norms).

Green indicates that a student is within the appropriate range, yellow that a student is at some risk, and red that a student is at high risk.

Hasbrouck & Tindal write: "We recommend that a score falling within 10 words above or below the 50th percentile should be interpreted as within the normal, expected, and appropriate range for a student at that grade level at that time of year" (p. 640). As suggested, we classify a student as green if her reading rate is greater than the 50th percentile for her grade and time of year minus 10 wcpm. We classify a student as yellow if she is 10-25 wcpm below average, and red otherwise.


  • Since Hasbrouck & Tindal have only defined norms beginning in the middle of first grade, no student is considered to be at-risk based on her words correct per minute prior to the middle of first grade. 
  • We treat fall as September 1, winter as January 15, and Spring as June 1. We assume linear increases in reading rates from September 1 to January 15 and from January 15 to June 1.


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